Our investigations of why this failure took place also discovered flaws in the certification system which is supposed to protect customers.

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APACS states that all UK cards issued since January 2008 have an i CVV, but our own testing in February 2008 shows this not to be the case. we informed APACS, GCHQ, Visa, Ingenico and, Verifone (Dione) of our findings and sent them a draft copy of our paper stating that it would be released in January/February 2008.

All except Visa acknowledged receipt, but we did confirm that Visa downloaded the paper from the address we sent them.

An extended version of our paper is available online as technical report UCAM-CL-TR-711: "Thinking inside the box: system-level failures of tamper proofing".

The key findings are summarised in our press release.

Despite our findings, none of the PEDs we examined are to be removed from service.

The full results of our study are to be published at the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy.

It was actually certified by APACS on the basis of a secret report from an undisclosed laboratory.

Now that vulnerabilities are exposed, will the certification be withdrawn?

Our results expose significant failings in the entire evaluation and certification process.

The UK banking industry chose to deploy Chip & PIN cards that do not encrypt the data exchanged between the card and the PED during a transaction.

Murdoch and Ross Anderson In Chip & PIN card transactions, customers insert their card and enter their PIN into a PIN Entry Device (PED).