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Under Charles V and his brother Ferdinand I, the Habsburgs reoccupied Buda and took possession of Hungary.
In both cases, the Ottoman army was plagued by bad weather (forcing them to leave behind essential siege equipment) and was hobbled by overstretched supply lines. By the 1540s a renewal of the conflict in Hungary presented Suleiman with the opportunity to avenge the defeat suffered at Vienna.
In 1541 the Habsburgs once again engaged in conflict with the Ottomans, by attempting to lay siege to Buda.
Suleiman's previous heir apparent, Mustafa, had been strangled to death 13 years prior at the sultan's order.
His other son Bayezid, had been killed by his support and Selim's order in 1561 with four of his sons.
Belgrade, with a garrison of only 700 men, and receiving no aid from Hungary, fell in August 1521. The fall of Christendom's major strongholds spread fear across Europe.
As the ambassador of the Holy Roman Empire to Constantinople was to note, "The capture of Belgrade was at the origin of the dramatic events which engulfed Hungary.
With their efforts repulsed, and more Habsburg fortresses captured by the Ottomans in two consecutive campaigns in 1541 and in 1544 as a result, Ferdinand and his brother Charles V were forced to conclude a humiliating five-year treaty with Suleiman.
Ferdinand renounced his claim to the Kingdom of Hungary and was forced to pay a fixed yearly sum to the Sultan for the Hungarian lands he continued to control.
Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade, Rhodes, as well as most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529.