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Flower buds are formed in the year before flowering (Ågren and Willson, 1994).
In the study area, plants flower in June and July for approx.
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Received: 9 December 2002; ; Returned for revision: 7 March 2003.
Accepted: 25 April 2003 Published electronically: 18 June 2003 Most angiosperms are hermaphrodites and achieve their fitness on average equally through male and female function (Lloyd and Bawa, 1984).
Hermaphrodites are presumed to allocate more resources to the sex function that produces higher fitness gain (Charnov, 1982), i.e.
allocation to pollen production should be high if fitness gain through seed production is low.
Fruits may contain up to five seeds (Ågren and Willson, 1994), although there are ten ovules per flower (P. Flowers are visited by generalist bees, bumblebees and syrphid flies (S. Population 1 occurs in a mixed forest patch and consists of 1120 individuals, whereas population 2 is situated in a meadow next to a forest edge and consists of 703 individuals; the proportions of females are 23·0 and 9·2 %, respectively. 300 m apart and are separated by a dense conifer forest.
Herbaceous vegetation in both habitats is quite similar consisting of, for example, species.
The number of flower buds was positively correlated with seed production in females, whereas in hermaphrodites a positive correlation between number of buds and seed production was found in only one of the two study populations.
These results suggest that fitness gain through female function is labile in hermaphrodites of this species, and is probably affected by environmental factors such as the sex ratio of the population.
Hermaphrodites can modify their reproductive allocation by investing varying amounts of resources between seed and pollen production, hence functioning sometimes more as males and sometimes more as females (Delph and Lloyd, 1991; Atlan., 1992).