This weighting between the costs and benefits of changing can produce profound ambivalence that can cause people to remain in this stage for long periods of time.

After 12 months of continuous abstinence, 43% of individuals returned to regular smoking.

It was not until 5 years of continuous abstinence that the risk for relapse dropped to 7% (USDHHS).

While progression through the Stages of Change can occur in a linear fashion, a nonlinear progression is common.

Often, individuals recycle through the stages or regress to earlier stages from later ones.

Guidance based on the TTM results in increased participation in the change process because it appeals to the whole population rather than the minority ready to take action.

The stage construct represents a temporal dimension. Surprisingly, none of the leading theories of therapy contained a core construct representing time.

These are the people who should be recruited for action-oriented programs.

Action is the stage in which people have made specific overt modifications in their lifestyles within the past six months.

Certain principles and processes of change work best at each stage to reduce resistance, facilitate progress, and prevent relapse.

Those principles include decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change.

They are more aware of the pros of changing, but are also acutely aware of the cons.