The act provided million for Iraqi "democratic opposition organizations" to "establish a program to support a transition to democracy in Iraq." One month after the passage of the Iraq Liberation Act, the US and UK launched a bombardment campaign of Iraq called Operation Desert Fox.

The campaign's express rationale was to hamper Saddam Hussein's government's ability to produce chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, but U. intelligence personnel also hoped it would help weaken Saddam's grip on power. Bush as president in 2000, the US moved towards a more aggressive Iraq policy.

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The al-Maliki government enacted policies that were widely seen as having the effect of alienating the country's Sunni minority and worsening sectarian tensions.

In the summer of 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) launched a military offensive in Northern Iraq and declared a worldwide Islamic caliphate, eliciting another military response from the United States and its allies.

Member states communicated their frustration over the years that Iraq was impeding the work of the special commission and failing to take seriously its disarmament obligations.

Iraqi officials harassed the inspectors and obstructed their work, In October 1998, removing the Iraqi government became official U. foreign policy with enactment of the Iraq Liberation Act.

In the aftermath of the invasion, Iraq held multi-party elections in 2005.

Nouri al-Maliki became Prime Minister in 2006 and remained in office until 2014.UNSCOM, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, worked to ensure that Iraq destroyed its chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons and facilities.In the decade following the Gulf War, the United Nations passed 16 Security Council resolutions calling for the complete elimination of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.The US became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition; the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue. However, the power vacuum following Saddam's demise and the mismanagement of the occupation led to widespread sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis, as well as a lengthy insurgency against U. The United States responded with a troop surge in 2007. The US formally withdrew all combat troops from Iraq by December 2011.The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of US President George W. The invasion began on 20 March 2003, with the US, joined by the United Kingdom and several coalition allies, launching a "shock and awe" bombing campaign. The Bush administration based its rationale for the war principally on the assertion that Iraq, which had been viewed by the US as a rogue state since the Persian Gulf War, possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and that the Iraqi government posed an immediate threat to the United States and its coalition allies.The Iraq War caused over a hundred thousand civilian deaths and tens of thousands of military deaths (see estimates below).