Switzerland emerged as the primary conference venue (at least 14 conferences), followed by the United Kingdom (13), the United States (12), France (10), Netherlands (9), Belgium (5), and Germany (5).

--- The history of the conferences reflects the ups and downs of various peace organizations, e.g.

-- Peace conferences nevertheless created a general appreciation of international cooperation, the principle of international arbitration was established, and some specific organizations were created, e.g.

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Most of the information presented below was obtained from the World Wide Web and is therefore incomplete, and many conferences have undoubtedly been omitted altogether.

Since this is a website devoted to peace monuments, an extra effort was made to identify the halls in which the conferences took place and any plaques, museums, and other monuments which have been constructed to preserve the memory of these historic peace conferences.

-- Gradually peace conferences organized by private citizens and voluntary organizations gave way to official peace conferencess organized by governments and attended by accredited diplomats.

The First Geneva Convention was signed in 1864, the first international organization (the Permanent Court of Arbitration) was created in 1899, the League of Nations resulted from the Treaty of Versailles in 1920, and the United Nations replaced the League in 1945.

Differences of opinion soon emerged, however, between those who believed in all-out pacifism and those who did not reject defensive warfare.

The ethical pacifism of these first societies was later strengthened by ideas emanating from France which saw international law as an alternative to wars and as a way to solve international conflicts." -- From Santi (1991) & Andr Durand (1996)."100 Years of Peace making: A history of the International Peace Bureau and other international peace movement organisations and networks" by Rainer Santi, Pax frlag, International Peace Bureau (IPB), Geneva (Switzerland), January 1991. Founded by abolitionist Thomas Clarkson [1760-1846] & others. Local peace societies (part of a liberal movement for human rights, social improvements, free trade, abolition of slavery & an end to war) start to appear when the Napoleonic wars finally end in 1815.The US & UK societies were initially inspired by religious and moral considerations, under the influence of the Quakers' principles of non-violence.-- Since World War II, there has been a plethora of so-called peace conferences, congresses, and festivals (and of official government conferences), but very few privately organized peace conferences have been able to sustain themselves for more than a few years.One exception is the Pugwash Conference on Science & World Affairs which began in 1957 and still meets annually.New York Peace Society, American Peace Society, the Peace Society (of UK), International Workers Association, International Arbitration & Peace Association, Universal Peace Union, Inter-Parliamentary Union, International Peace Bureau, Fellowship of Reconciliation, Women's Peace Party, Women's International League for Friendship & Peace. -- Peace conferences brought together many peacemakers on whom the Nobel Committee bestowed the Nobel Peace Prize -- Henri Durant (1901) | Frdric Passy (1901) | Charles Albert Gobat (1902) | lie Ducommun (1902) | William Randal Cremer (1903) | Bertha von Suttner (1905) | Fredrik Bajer (1908) | Auguste Beernaert (1909)| Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant (1909) | Tobias Asser (1911) | Alfred Hermann Fried (1911) | Elihu Root (1912) | Henri La Fontaine (1913) | Christian Lange (1921) | Austen Chamberlain (1925) | Aristide Briand (1926) | Gustav Stresemann (1926) | Ferdinand Buisson (1927) | Frank Kellogg (1929) | Nathan Sderblom (1930) | Jane Addams (1931) | Nicholas Murray Butler (1931) | Cordell Hull (1945) | Emily Greene Balch (1946) | John R. (Click here for a longer list of peacemakers who attended in the 19th century & early 20th century.) -- Peace conferences tried to end war -- and to stop impending wars. Henry Ford & Andrew Carnegie) invested in peace conferences to stop World War I.